13 Aralık 2007 Perşembe

WELCOME TO TURKEY INTRODUCTION WEB PAGE


TURKEY TOURIZM
Turkish people are very hospitable and companionable.
Welcome to the cradle of civilization and beliefs.
Турецкий народ очень гостеприимный и товарищеские.
Добро пожаловать в колыбель цивилизации и верования.
Les Turcs sont très accueillants et sociables.
Bienvenue sur le berceau de la civilisation et les croyances.
Turkish people es muy hospitalaria y sociable.
Bienvenido a la cuna de la civilización y las creencias.
トルコの人々はとても親切ですし、親しみやすい。
ようこそ、文明と信仰の発祥地です
Popolo turco è molto ospitale e socievole.
Benvenuti alla culla della civiltà e delle credenze.
Turkish people er svært gjestfri og omgjengelig.
Velkommen til vugge sivilisasjonens og tro.
터키어 사람들은 매우 친절하고 동무로 사귈만한.
에 오신 것을 환영 문명과 신앙의 요람합니다.
Turkish people são muito hospitaleiros e sociável.
Bem-vindo ao berço da civilização e crenças.
Turkish people sunt foarte ospitalieri si sociabil.
Bine aţi venit în leagănul civilizaţiei şi credinţele.
Turkish people är mycket gästfria och sällskaplig.
Välkommen till civilisationens vagga och trosuppfattningar.
الشعب التركي مضياف جدا وظريف.
أرحب في مهد الحضارة والمعتقدات.
Türken sind sehr gastfreundlich und gesellig.
Willkommen in der Wiege der Zivilisation und Überzeugungen.


You Should Make Your Holiday in TURKEY
Welcome to the Our Best Country Turkey
Sie sollten Ihren Urlaub macht in der TÜRKEIWillkommen in der Our Best Land Türkei
Makes You Should vos vacances en TurquieBienvenue à notre Best Pays Turquie
Si usted hace que sus vacaciones en TURQUIABienvenidos a la Mejor Nuestro País Turquía
現在トルコでのあなたの休日にしますすべきようこそ私たちの国トルコベストに


Turkey is known as
Wonder Land All Over The World

This page formed by Fatih SARGIN
sargin1979@hotmail.com



TURKEY'S GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Генеральный Турции Введение
トルコの一般的な紹介
Introduction générale La Turquie
Der Türkei Allgemeine Einführung
General de Turquía en la Introducción
Generale della Turchia Introduzione
تركيا في مقدمة عامة
İstanbul is very important place in the world.The city is spread over an area of 7.500 km2 150 km long and 50 km wide.Istanbul became the biggest and the most crowded city of Europe.Because, ıts location between Asia and Europe, the city always had a great geopolitical importance.the city population is estimate 12 to15 millions.Around 2 millions tourists visit İstanbul every year.They are see the historical and natural beauties of the city. The city has a lots of historical mosque,church and museums of Turkey.THE ÇAMLICA HILLÇamlıca hill is the higgest hill in İstanbul.It is 263 m. high from the sea level.It was used as a picnic area.In the 1980 is the Touring Automobile Association built a series of restaurant,a Turkish cafe and a parkTHE TAKSIM SQUAREThe large square at the end of the Istıklal street is the Taksim square, which is one of the most active centers of İstanbul.The square is the most important for Istanbul.There are a lot of different counturies people.There are a lot of big department store this place is really beatiful.BOSPHORUS BRİDGE OR THE ATATÜRK BRIDGEThe project preparations were started in1950.The bridge building started in 1970.It was completed on 29 October 1973.It was built by German and England engineers.Thirty five engineers and four hundred Turkish workers were employed during the construstion.Its cost was $25 millions.The height of the bridge from sea is 64 m.The Atatürk Bridge carries 200.000 vehicles and 600.000 people a day.
THE FATİH SULTAN MEHMET BRIDGEThe Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge was built between 1985 and 1988 the opening date was at the save time the 535th anniversary of the Otoman conquest of the city.
THE SÜLEYMANIYE MOSQUEIt was built by Architect Sinan, the most famous architect at Ottoman history between 1550-1557 Süleymaniye Mosque, according to the construction reports of those days,5.723 workers (of these 1.713 are Moslems, 3.523 Christians ) completed the construction in 2.7 million working days.The cost of the mosque is $60 millions today.THE LEANDROS TOWERThe leandros Tower covers on area of 1250 m2 and was built 200 metres from the Usküdar beach.It has got a intelligent history.One day a witch has got apples for the girl and gave her a poisana us apple, she did after eating it.That is why the tower is called the Leandros TowerTHE GALATA TOWERThis tower at the slopes of Galata is visible every where in the city, and is 61 m. tall.The tower is at the hill which over looks both to the Bospherus and the Golden Horn and the sea of Marmara.One day,an scientist named Hazerfen Ahmet Çelebi jumped down the tower and flew to the opposite side of the Bosphorus strait by using the wings which he had invented ( 17th century )THE FORTRESSIt was constructed with the order of Yıldırım Beyazıd in 1393, during one of the sicges of İstanbul.It is opposite to the Rumeli Hisarı.In the previous period there was a Christian Church at the same place.Its original name was Güzelce Hisar.There are a lots of pashas villas.These are the Bahriyeli Sedat Bey Villa, the Zarif Mustafa Pahsa Villa, constructed in the 19 th century; the Yağcı Sefik Bey Villa, constructed in 1905 and the Hasan Pahsa Villa.THE DOLMABAHÇE PALACE MUSEUMThe Dolmabahçe Palace Museum was built between 1611-1614.It ıs that 14 tens of gold and 40 tons of silver were used for the decoration of the palace.The furniture was bought from Paris, the vases from Hereke and Lyan , the crytal materials from Bccarant and the the can dlesticks from England with special order.Almost all of 131 large and 99smal hand-made carpets are silk carpets, and they were woven in the royal workshops in Hereke.The total area covered by the carpets is 4.500 square meters.The total area at the palace is 250.000 square meters
There are 12 gates.There are 285 rooms, 43 holls, 6 balconies, 6 hamams and 1427 windows.In the deconation, 156 clocks, 280 vases and 58 candle sticks.By the way, the carpet of 124 m2 is the second largest hand-made Hereke carpet in Turkey.

KOCAELİ
İzmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit (the ancient Gulf of Astacus) in the Sea of Marmara, about 100 km (62 mi) east of İstanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city centre has a population of 248,424 (2007 census). The urban area has a population of 577,932 inhabitants and is part of Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality, which has the same border as Kocaeli Province with a population of 1,411,845 inhabitants.İzmit (Nicomedia) was the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire between 286 and 324, during the Tetrarchy introduced by Diocletian. Following Constantine's defeat of co-emperor Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324, Nicomedia served as an interim capital city for Constantine the Great between 324 and 330, until the nearby Byzantium was officially declared Nova Roma (later known as Constantinople, present-day Istanbul.)Defining İzmitThe geological location of İzmit is between 40°-41° N and 29°-31° E, surrounded by the Gulf of İzmit at south, İstanbul and the Sea of Marmara at west, the Black Sea at north, and Sakarya at east.The city is mostly built on hill slopes because of the cramped area, while flat plains are located around the gulf, near the sea. This topographic structure divided the city in two different parts. The first part was created on flat plains, where the city center is also located. The railway and highway networks also pass from this area which is close to the Sea of Marmara. The second part was built on hills, with many historic houses from the Ottoman period in the old quarters.ClimateThe local climate, more temperate near the Gulf of İzmit (Körfez in Turkish) and the Black Sea, more severe in the mountains, constitutes a transition between Mediterranean and Black Sea types; the typical urban summer here is hot and dry, the winter wet, however, Izmit and Marmara lack the refreshing summer breezes of the northern reaches, and can become humid.The highest recorded temperature in the city (11 Aug 1970) was 41.6°C , the lowest (4 Feb 1960) -8.7°C , while the yearly average stands at 14.8°C . The Black Sea coast sees an annual rainfall of 1000mm., which gradually lessens south-eastwards: Izmit, for example, generally gets less than 800mm. The south-facing slopes of the Samanlı mountains, near Körfez, experience conditions similar to Black Sea coastal regions. Winter winds blow from the south to south-east, while in summer mainly south-easterly.FeaturesThere are numerous tourist attractions both in the city centre and its adjacent region, such as the remains of the ancient Acropolis, Agora, Amphitheater, Nymphaeum, Necropolis, Demeter Temple and the Hellenistic Üçtepeler Mound King Tombs, the Roman city walls, parts of the Temple of Augustus, parts of the Palace and Arsenal of Diocletian, Roman aqueducts and cisterns, a Byzantine fortress at the core of the Roman city walls, Orhan Gazi Mosque (1333), the 14th century Süleyman Paşa Hamam, the 16th century Imaret Mosque and Pertev Paşa Mosque (1580) designed by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, Pertev Paşa Fountain (1571), the 16th century Mehmed Bey Hamam, Saatçi Ali Efendi Mansion (1776), Tüysüz Fountain (1782), the early 19th century Fevziye Mosque, Kapanca Sokağı Fountain and Canfeda Kethüda Kadın Fountain (1827), the mid 19th century Sırrı Paşa Mansion, Kasr-ı Hümayun Palace and the French Theological School, Redif Barracks (1863), and the İzmit Clock Tower (1901).Economyİzmit is an important industrial centre, with a large oil refinery, and major paper and cement factories. Ford Motor Company has a plant here in a joint venture with Otosan, assembling the Transit/Tourneo and Transit/Tourneo Connect vans. It is also a transportation hub, being located on the main highway and railway lines between İstanbul and Ankara, and having a major port.In the past few years the province has developed into a growth point for the automotive industry, receiving investment from Ford, Hyundai, Honda and Isuzu. Tyre and rubber products are produced to world class standard (Goodyear, Pirelli, Lassa and Bridgestone). Today Kocaeli province has grown 1200 industrial investments of which 108 have been established with international capital. Turkey’s largest enterprise, Tüpraş Petroleum Refinery Plant, is also located in Kocaeli, containing altogether 27% of the national chemical industry (petro-chemical included), including 18 of the 100 largest enterprises of Turkey are located in Kocaeli and paying 17-18% of the national tax revenues.Financial Times affiliated Foreign Direct Investment Magazine nominated Kocaeli (the province of which İzmit is the capital) among the 25 European Regions of the Future for 2006-2007. The city was chosen along with Adana for Turkey, which scored the most points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli's wider infrastructure, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for human resources and quality of life.The famous Turkish traditional sweet Pişmaniye is a product of İzmit and the Kocaeli Province.TransportBeing located along the commercially-active Black Sea and Marmara Sea shorelines, Kocaeli boasts 5 ports and 35 industrial docks, making it an important communications centre, as well as Anatolia’s farthest inland contact point and a gateway to global markets. The main transportation routes, the D-100 highway and the E-6 TEM (Trans European Motorway) which connects Europe with Asia, along with railway lines, form an intercontinental passage network. Kocaeli neighbours one of the world’s largest metropolitan centres, Istanbul. Its vicinity to Istanbul's two international airports (Sabiha Gökçen International Airport and Atatürk International Airport) which are 45 and 80 km (50 mi) away, respectively, from İzmit's city centre, provides national and international connections.EducationKocaeli University was established in the city in 1992. The university has more than 50,000 students.HistoryIn antiquity, the city was called Astacus or Olbia (founded 712 BC). After being destroyed, it was rebuilt and founded by Nicomedes i of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Gebze). The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire (see Nicaea), and Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium as Nova Roma, which eventually became known as Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.The city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1338.The earthquake of August 17, 1999 (magnitude 7.4) devastated the region, killing more than 19,000 people and leaving many more homeless. It took several years for the city to recover from this disaster; but the scars, especially on the memories of the residents - many of whom lost loved ones, can still be observed.
BOLU
Bolu is on the western black sea region of Turkey.Bolu is called 14th. Century by Turks.Bolu is famaus with green forests,love singing rivers,living lakes,natural cold spring water resourceses and ski centers.Bolu connects Ankara to İstanbul.It’s 190km.from Ankara and 260km. from İstanbul.The forests cover 55% of all surface area of Bolu.The climate features of Bolu are usually of the black sea .The area of Bolu is 8458 km² ,The population is 280,000.NATURAL BEAUTİESLAKES: -YEDİGÖLLER:This national park is on the 42 km. nort of BOLU.There are seven lakes in there.All of lakes are in different sizes.The ministry of forests took under protection as a national park in 1968. There are a lot kinds of trees in there for example; pines,lindens,oaks.The wild animals here are bears,wolfs,foxes.Sportive fishing is another enjoying facility of Yedigöller.Only you can go by your private car.-ABANT:This lake is 34 km. far from Bolu.There are two luxurious hotels in here.It is very wide and the underground water resources feed the lake.Adding that;people can fish,camp,picnic and ride horse.-GÖLCÜK:This lake is 13 km. to the South of Bolu .It is on the road of Seben. The lake around covered with pines and firs.The ministry of forest owns a nice building. People go there all seasons.-SÜNNET LAKE:This lake is on the 24km east of Göynük. There are a lot of trouts in the lake .In addiction,picnic, sportive fishing,trekking,camping are some activities in fresh air in there.-GÖLKÖY BARRAGE LAKE :THis lake is 8 km. west of Bolu .All around the lake is sorrounded with forests.There are fishing ,sporting and picnic oppurtinies.PLATEAUSALADAĞ PLATEAUS:It is between the forest areas on the mountains slopes of the South of Bolu.Good for picnic and camping sites.A lake Aladağ scouts camping exists in there.Aladağ Lake is ideal lake for sportive fishing .The main plateaus group are;değirmenözü,gölcük,saraycı k,üstyaka,at,sarıala n plateaus.Also there are a lot of plateauos in Bolu’s counties.SEBEN PLATEAUS:They have an average altitude of 1400mt.Some of the most important plateau is Kızık plateau. Kızık plateau differs with it’s nicely built houses.They are built using no nails but only pine trees by putting them on each other.WİNTER TOURİSMKARTALKAYA:If you turn rigth to South from the junction10km.on the D-100 way to Ankara from Bolu city center.It is 28 km from the junction.It’s height is 2000 mt.There are 13 pists,30km and 15 lifts.Winter sporting activies go on between december and april in there.ESENTEPE:It is North of Gerede county with an altitude of 1300mt.It has wonderful panoramas.You can skin in winter and ski on grass in summer.Atatürk called ‘’Esentepe ‘’ because this place always windy.HEALTHBATHİNG TOURISM - BOLU HOTSPRİNG This hotsprings baths are in Karacasu 5km.They are on environment is completely covered with forests.A good resorts for holiday.These water hotspring bath are good for some illnesses,diseases like hearth ,skin and rheumatism diseases.This bath’s history feeds back to the Byzantium ages.It has a 45 degrees celcius hot water.There is a three star hotel .They were built beneath the historical baths.The big and the little hot spring baths can not be used unisex,but in turns for each sexes.TURKİSH BATH: GHAZİ SÜLEYMAN PAŞA TURKİSH BATH:Ghazi Süleyman paşa was built this turkish bath. Turkish bath near the Akşemmseddin tomb. This turkish bath, almost the oldest Turkish bath in bolu.BOLU YILDIRIM BAYEZİD TURKİSH BATH: In 791,This turkish bath was built by Çelebi Bayezid to people. This turkish bath’s architect name is ömer bin ibrahim. Actually, we must called Yıldırım Bayezid turkish bath but informal, people called middle turkish bath because Yıldırım Bayezid was built lots of Turkish bath and things and almost all of them name are Yıldırım Bayezid. Now, people still Yıldırım Bayezid turkish bath.MUDURNU YIDIRIM BAYEZİD TURKİSH BATH:Mudurnu Yıldırım Bayezid turkish bath was built by Yıldırım Bayezid. This turkish bath’s arthitect name is ömer bin ibrahim. Mudurnu Yıldırım Bayezid turkish bath change accordin to the past.ESKİÇAĞ YILDIRIM BAYEZİD TURKİSH BATH:A lot of people were built this turkish bath and they called Yıldırım Bayezid because they love him.TABAKLAR TURKISH BATH:This turkish bath is the bolu city centre bolu city centre. Tavil Mehmet paşa built Tabaklar turkish bath. Now, people still use tabaklar turkish bath.SULTAN TURKISH BATH:Sultan turkish bath is in the saraçhane street in the bolu city centre. Sokullu mehmet paşa’s aware built sultan turkish bath until 6 years ago because in 1999 earthquake this turkish bath damage.CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL VALUES-BIG MOSQUE: This mosque is in the city center of Bolu.The mosque was built by Yıldırım Bayezıt in 1382.In the year 1899 the mosque burnt down and the building was repaired to it’s present condition. In the year 1944 earthquake, this mosque be demolished and ottoman’s sovereigh built quickly and now, It has double minarets,single dome and wonderful ornemental decoration showing the very best example of the historical arts.MUDURNU YILDIRIM BAYEZID MOSQUE:In The year 789, Yılırım Bayezıd built this mosque, medresseh and turkish bath in Mudurnu. These complex in city centre. These mosque built by ottoman architecture. -AKŞEMSETTİN TOMB:The tomb of Akşemsettin in Göynük.He was the tutor of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Great Ottoman Emperor.Build in the courdyard of Gazi Süleyman Paşa Mosque with a hexagon plan.This tomb was restored in 1987 and has wonderful samples of wood art Works.-TOKAD-İ HAYRETTİN TOMB:This is the tomb of Tokad-i Hayreddin.He died in 1535.It is 12 km on the west of the city center. Every year, first week in july, a lot of people visit tokad-i hayrettin tomb.-SEBEN ROCK HOUSES:These are interesting apartmens.They were digget into the high rock face of a canyon.This canyon connects all Çeltik Deresi,Hoçaş,Kaşbıyıklar,Yuva village of Seben.Seben is a famous country of Bolu for its fascinating sights worth seeing.Some these rock houses were used as deports. These deports cause these small caverns are dark,cool and dry.Good for storing food.In addiction there are similar rock houses in the Solaklar,Alpagut and Muslar villages near the county center.CİVİZİLED ARCHITECTURE-THE HOUSES OF BOLU: There are lots of houses in bolu city centre, göynük and mudurnu. In 19. century and 20. century the people of Bolu built traditional homes. Only göynük and mudurnu traditional city. In bolu city centre, there are few traditional homes, but these are be lost among big apartments. In the forest cover göynük,mudurnu and bolu so people use wooden to build. Generally, people use rock to build mosque caravansary, turkish bath. At the moment, The management of Turkey under protection as a traditional houses.THE BOLU FOUNTAİN: The crooked urbanization damage. The bolu fountain. In bolu there are a lot of fountain in the past. But,now,there are only fifteen or twenty fountain. Saraçhane mosque’s fountain and karacaağaç village’s fountain built in 19 century.-LOCAL KITCHEN AND QUISINE :Bolu’s kitchen and quisine is very rich.Particularly,The chefs of Bolu’s and Mengen’s are famous in the world.It is possible to see our Bolu’s chefs in the most of touristic establisment in the Turkey.Cooking is father jop is in Mengen because of this reason,a’’cooking profession school ‘’ was open in the 1985 in Mengen for developing this jop as scientific.-KÖROĞLU :Once you talk about Bolu,its impossible not to mention Köroğlu.He is a well known folk hero in whole turkish world.Köroğlu who lived in the 16 century as a travelling poet is a master of social criticism. The extaordinary equestrian statue of Köroğlu in the city centre stands as a memorial of his. People called Köroğlu to him after this state;Bolu’s master be interested horse and he had a groom. Has groom called yusuf. One day, bolu’s master wanted to new horse and his groom went to city centre. He bought new horse but ıt show very bad. So bolu’s master thought "yusuf flouted yourself " and bolu’s master tribed yuısuf ’eyes. Yusuf came to his village and he explained thıs situation and his son (he name was ruşen ali) was very angry and than ruşen ali killed bolu’s master. After this situation every body speak Köroğlu to him.
ESKİŞEHİR
Eskişehir (eskē'shehēr, Turkish: Eskişehir, "Old City"; Latin: Dorylaeum; Greek: Δορύλαιον, Dorylaion) is a city in northwest Turkey and the capital district of Eskişehir Province. According to 2000 census, population of the district is 519,602 of which 482,793 live in the city of Eskişehir. The city is located on the bank of Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is on the250 km (155 mi) west of Ankara, 350 km (217 mi) southeast of Istanbul and 90 km (56 mi) northeast of Kütahya. The province covers an area of 2,678 km² (1,034 sq mi).HistoryThe name Eskişehir means Old City in Turkish. Indeed the city was founded by the Phrygians about 1000 BC. Many Phrygian artifacts and sculptures can still be found in its Archeological Museum. There is also a museum of meerschaum stone, whose production remains still notable, used to make high quality meerschaum pipes. In the fourth century AD the city moved about ten km northeast, from Karadja Hissar to Shehir Euyuk.Whenever it was mentioned by ancient geographers, the city was described as one of the most beautiful in Anatolia.

As with many towns in Anatolia, Christianity arrived after Constantine the Great made it the official religion of the Roman Empire. Beginning in the 4th century, records exist of bishops holding office in Eskişehir. The city was known as Dorylaeum, then. One of these bishops, Eusebius, was heavily involved in shaping the evolving dogma of the church.EconomyModern-day Eskişehir is one of Turkey's foremost industrial cities. Traditionally dependent on flour-milling and brickyards, the city expanded with the building of railway workshops in 1894 for work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway. Eskişehir was also the site of Turkey's first aviation industry (Aeronautical Supply Maintenance Centre) and its air base is the headquarters of Turkey's First Tactical Air Force, on NATO's southern flank during the Cold War.Eskişehir is one of the largest industrial centres of Turkey, with several modern industries, producing trucks, home appliances, railway locomotives, fighter aircraft engine, agricultural equipment, textiles, brick, cement, chemicals, processed meerschaum and refined sugar.AttractionsMost of Eskişehir was rebuilt after the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1922). It is a well-functioning attractive place, but with few old attractions. One exception is the Kursunlu Camii Mosque. Near Eskişehir lies the site of the ancient Phrygian city of Dorylaeum. Eskişehir is noted for its hot sulphur springs.Education

There are two universities in Eskişehir. These are Anadolu University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University. The current Metropolitan Mayor of Eskişehir Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Büyükerşen was formerly the rector of Anadolu University.CultureThe city has a significant population of Crimean Tatars. It also attracted ethnic Turks emigrating from Bulgaria and Romania who contributed to the development of the city's metalworking industries.
Çanakkale, is a town and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles (or Hellespont) at their narrowest point.Çanakkale Province, like Istanbul Province, has territory in both Europe and Asia. Ferries cross here to the northern (European) side of the strait.Çanakkale is the nearest major town to the site of ancient Troy. The "wooden horse" from the 2004 movie Troy is exhibited on the seafront.HistoryThe city which hosted many civilizations; had been inhabited by the natives who had lived on Biga Peninsula in the Last Chalcolithic Age believed to have started 6000 years ago. However, those natives are unknown. According to some excavations and research, the earliest settlements in the region were set up at Kumtepe. It is supposed that Kumkale was set up in 4000 B.C and Troy was set up between 3500–3000 B.C. The real history of Çanakkale started with Troy. It was the brightest cultural center of its time during 3000–2000 B.C.Later the Aeolians had settled on that important land in the 8th century B.C. they founded many trade colonies in the region called Aeolis. The region went under the control of the Lydians in the 7th century B.C and under the control of the Persians in the 6 th century B.C. Aeolis went under the control of the Macedonians as Alexander the Great defeated the Persians by the Granicus River of the region in the Battle of the Granicus on his way to Asia. The region went under the reign of the Kingdom of Pergamon in the 2nd century B.C.

The western part of the Biga Peninsula where Troy was stiuated was called Troas. Alexandria Troas, an important settlement of the region, was a free trade port and a rich trade center during Roman times. Later in the 2nd cenury A.D., the region was attacked by Goths from Thrace. The Dardanelles gained more strategic importance. The Gallipoli Peninsula was attacked by the Thins in the 5th century and by the Uyghurs in the mid-6th century. During the 7th and 8th centuries, in order to attack Constantinople (modern İstanbul) the Arabs passed the Strait a few times and came up to Sestos. In the beginning of the 14th century the Cathons became dominant in the Gallipoli part and Karesioğulları dominated the Anatolian part. During the first half of that century Demirhan Bey from Karesioğulları attempted to dominate the region. The Ottomans gained control of Galipoli in 1367.

The 'Chanak Crisis' of 1922 centred around a British and French force stationed at Çanakkale after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. The new Turkish Republic demanded their withdrawal. Lloyd George wanted to fight the Turks because their leader at 'Chanak', Kemal Atatürk, had defied a signed and legal treaty via armament and military aggressiveness. Ultimately, the British and Turkish troops ended up at an impasse. Rather than engaging in another war on the heels of the first World War, peace was negotiated.

IZMIR
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l_L49coUNc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGlX7u2VuGE&feature=related

Detailed Information for Tourizm, Accommodations and Arrival About Izmir:
http://www.canakkaletravel.com/indexingilizce.htm
http://www.hotelscombined.com/City/Canakkale.htm
Izmir is the pearl of the Aegean, a fascinating city whose history begins in the mists of legend. Turkey’s third largest city and second most important port, Izmir is the center of tourism in the region. This modern city still retains traces of its ancient, Ottoman and Levantine past.
AGORA: Revealed in central Izmir during excavations carried out in 1932-1941 in the district of Namazgah. eovering an area of 120 x 80 m, the agora throws invaluable light on Roman period Izmir. it was not only a market place, but the location of public institutions and the Temple of Zeus. The agora is open to the public between 9.00 -12.00 and 13.00 -18.00. The statues found here are on exhibit in Izmir Archaeological Museum.ALSANCAK: A select neighbourhood with a unique character in modern Izmir. Stretching from the waterfront esplanade inland most of the area has been transformed into a pedestrian precinct, so there is no trarffic to disturb shoppers and strollers.The streets lined by modern buildings and attractive shops lead onto the square where Alsancak station stands. Dating from 1858 the colonial architecture of the station distinguishes it in style from the rest of the city. Trains to Buca, Aydin and Denizli depart from here.ANGLICAN CHURCH : This church was built in 1835 by Levantines of English extraction living in Buca. The church is famous for its wood carving, beautiful stained glass windows and huge organ.ASANSOR: The city’s famous public elevator, and a symbol of Izmir. This elevator links Mithatpasa street below with Halil Rifat Pasa street at the summit of the precipitous hill. It was built in 1907 and restored by the municipality in 1993. The upper terrace has a breathtaking view over the city and the bay. Here there is an Open-air cafe, a restaurant and a Genoese tavern.BALCOVA: This spa is on the outskirts of Izmir on the road to Urla and Çesme. Turn left at Inciralti crossroads to reach Balçova thermal springs one kilometer down the road. Known as the Agamemnon Springs in antiquity, this may have been the first hydrotherapy center of the ancient world. Today there are modern facilities for visitors to the hot springs and luxury hotels. The temperature of the water is 63 degrees C.BARLAR SOKAGI: Street of Bars. Some of the attractive old houses under conservation order in Alsancak now house bars and restaurants.BASMANE: In this district are Izmir’s oldfashioned shopping streets, the park where the famous Izmir Fair is held each summer, and Basmane station. The trains to Manisa, and suburban rail buses to Bornova and other destinations leave from this station.BORNOVA: A suburb of Izmir, Bornova was the hub of the Levantine community in the late l9th and 20th centuries. Today it houses the campus of Ege University The Izmir-Manisa road passes through Bornova, which is linked to the city centre by a 7 km railway line.BUCA: Once Izmir’s summer resort, Buca is today part of the city. With a population of 200000 in 1990, Buca is today a commercial and university district. The British Levantine merchants who ran businesses in Izmir from the late l8th century onward s built imposing mansions here. Not until the 1950s did Buca undergo radical change as various institutions moved into the mansions, whose extensive gardens are under conservation.CLIMATE: Typical mediterranean climate, with hot dry summers and warm wet winters. The average temperature is 18 degrees C. Snowfall is extremely rare, and approximately 148 days of the year are clear and sunny.CLOCK TOWER: Another symbol of the city, this picturesque clock tower in Konak Meydan was build in 1901 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Abduhamit II’s accession to the throne. The clock itsetf was a gift of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. The 25 m high tower is currently being restored.CESME: This popular and attractive resort west of lzmir is famous for its modern hotels, sparkling clean sea and wonderful sandy beaches.CIPURA: Izmir’s Iegendary fish. Found widely in both the Mediterranean and Aegean, this delicious fish with a dark blue back and silvery sides is now extensively farmed. Go into any of Izmir’s many sea food restaurants and order grilled Cipura, acc ompanied by a salad of diverse local herbs and pure olive oiI. What could be more sublime!DOKUZ EYLUL: 9 September l922… The day when Izmir was liberated from three years of Greek occupation following the Great Attack launched by the Turkish army on 26 August. One of the major events ln the Turkish War of Independence, this date is th e name of one of the city’s universities.FOCA: A picturesque fishing town 50 km north of Izmir. A magnet for holliday makers during summer today, Foca was an important Ionian town in antiquity. The Phokaians were famed for their commercial prowess, courage and seamanship. They establishe d trading cololnies at distant ports, and were the founders of the French port of Marseilles (the ancient Massalia).HISAR MOSQUE: The city’s most magnificent mosque in the district of Hisar next to Kemeralti office complex. The mosque was built by Yakup Bey in 1592. It is roofed by a large dome resting on eight piers, and noted for the decoration on the altar ni che and pulpit.HOUSE OF THE VIRGIN MARY: This holy Christian shrine on Mt.Bulbul between Selcuk and Ephesus was sanctifìed by Pope Paul VI in 1967, after the Vatican confirmed that the Virgin Mary had spent the last years of her life here. Numerous travel agencie s in Izmir organise day tours to the House of the Virgin Mary and Ephesus.IMBAT : The sea breeze which brings relief to Izmir’s inhabitants in the blazing heat of high summer.IZMIR FAIR: Since I932 this international trade fair has been the highlight of the summer season in Izmir. From late August to early September the fair doubles as a popular festival of music and stage events in the Culture Park.IZMIR KOFTE: ‘Izmir’s best known local dish, now popular almost everywhere in Turkey. But to enjoy it at its finest you must eat it at the house of an Izmir family or in an old fashioned backstreet restaurant in the city. Finely minced meat is kne aded with Onion juice, salt, pepper and fresh breadcrumbs. Shaped into balls or fingers this mixture is fried, and placed on a bed of fried green peppers, tomatoes and potatoes in a shallow pan. Serve hot.KADIFEKALE: Velvet Castle, to be literal. This 4th century BC castle commands a bird’s eye view of Izmir and is th perfect place to watch the sun set over the city.KARSIYAKA: The name of this district of Izmir on the north shore off Izmir Bay means “opposite shore”, as indeed it is. The inhabitants of this pleasant residential area with its Own esplanade claim an identity distinct from the rest of the city. In their view, Karsiyaka is a town in its own right with an individual cultulre and history.KEMERALTI: The old fashioned shopping district of Izmir, consisting of narrow streets winding their way from Konak towards central Izmir around Anafartalar Caddesi. Here you can find jewellers, drapers, shoemaker, and shops specialising in all kind s of goods from leather to olives and cheese. The atmosphere of an earlier century still pervades the bulidings here, with their distinctive 19th century doorways and roof tiles.KORDON: The famous esplanade between Konak Meydan and Alsancak is packed with promenaders on weekends and fine evenings. As families and young lovers hand in hand stroll along the waterfront, horse-drawn phaetons with colourful ponpons swinging from the harnesses es trot past, and cars cruise by. Izmir’s esplanade is the subject of a popular old song:”My lover seemed to say/Let us meet on the Kordon one day/Perhaps at ten o’clock”.LOKMA: Lokma is Izmir’s celebrated sweet pastry. Tiny balls of yeast dough are fried in hot oil and steeped in syrup as you wait. Queues olf customers gather at the stalls where the best lokma is made.PASAPORT: (Not a printing error, but the Turkish for “passport). The name for the dock and pier between Konak and Cumhuriyet Meydan. Pasasaport Dock was built in 1876. The dock building is in the Turkish revival style inspired by Ottoman and Selcuk architecture which was popular in the 1920s and 1930s. Until not so long ago the area was full of old fashioned coffee houses which served waterpipes as well as tea and coffee, but today pubs have supplanted most of them.PERGAMUM: The remains of this magnificent ancient city are situated north of Imir. Founded in the early 3rd century BC, Pergamum was the most powerful and extensive kingdom of Western Anatolia throughout the Hellenistic periold. Parchment is though t to have been invented here. On the hill which rises steeply in the centre of Pergamum is the Acropolis and the world’s steepest amphitheatre with seating for 16,000 people. The remains of temples Of Athena and Dionysus.The splendid altar of Zeus at the entrance of the Acropolis was taken to Berlin Museum by Carl Humann in 1871. A fligth of 20 steps leads up to this remarkable structure, which dwarfs the room at Berlin Museum, as it awaits expectantly the day when it will be released from confinement and return to its hilltop site in Pergamum.The ruins of the Asclepion on the plain below reveal almost all the original features as a result of the excavations. Named after the god of medicine Asclepios, this complex was one of the foremost heath cent ers of the ancient world.SELCUK: A town in the foothills of the Aydin mountains 94 km south of Izmir. SeIcuk is the site of Ephesus Museum, a magnificent castle and the 6th century Basilica of St.John. The road to the resorts of Marmaris and Bodrum passes through Selcuk, w hile Kusadasi, port of call for many yachts and cruise liners, is just a twenty minute drive to the north.SMYRNA: The ancient name for Izmir and the heroic Amazon who founded the city according to Herodotus and Strabon.TEOS: The ruins of Teos are set amidst olive groves at one end of Sigacik harbour near Seferihisar, famous for its beaches and thermal springs. Thales relates that Teos was selected as capital of the league of twelve Ionian cities in the 7th centur y BC. The largest temple of Dionysus ever built in Teos.TEPEKULE: Excavations at Tepekule in the district of Bayrakli have thrown light on Izmir’s early history. Izmir was oriinally a settlement of the Aeolians, who were conteporaries of the first Trojans, and dates back to the third miilenium BC. The c ity was subsequently occupied by the Ionians, and the Lydian King Alyattes conquered the region in 600 BC, razing Izmir’s temples and houses. Today the ruins of the Temple of Athena and houses can be seen at Tepekule.URLA: Urla is a resort 42 km from Izmir n the road to Cesme. Izmirians spend their summers and weekends here, the site of the ancient Ionian city of Klazomenai. This city was the birthplace of the illustrious philosopher Anaxogoras, and is latterly also famous for a local pastry dish “katmer” and for its meat and fis restaurants.WILD HERBS: Dishes made with fresh herbs have a special place in the Aegean cuisine. When spring comes local markets are filled with green vegetables, many of them local wild varieties gathered from meadows and mountains, such as radika, turpotu, h ardalotu, and cibes (the first shoots of cauliflower) and many more. The leaves are washed, blanched and served with a ressing of lemon juice and olive oil.

MUĞLA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsOtz08_NMQ

Marmaris MUĞLA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeZC-N0PztY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRxYjnAo7g0
http://www.icemtour.com/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWIA71nyyko&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWIA71nyyko&feature=related

PAMUKKALE - MARMARİS
http://www.pamukkalehotels.net/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVKwVywg_5A&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtAZLW_FVQY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83K1cayxWK4&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LH2c15yOxFc&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEnyG-m0pTs&feature=related

Didim in MUĞLA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yE9zjK4nqLs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=biWr3VxRQJo

Datça in MUĞLA
http://www.datcaguide.com/

Bodrum in MUĞLA
http://www.depark.com.tr/onay/Bodrum_aquapark.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmbF9OPviFM

http://www.bodrum-bodrum.com/html/bodrum_more.htm
http://www.bodrumhotelstatil.com/antalya-english/default.htm
http://www.bodrum-hotels.com/
Mugla is the ideal destination for those who want everything at once. It is one of the many ancient cities of the Caria region, today Aegean region of Turkey. The most beautiful holiday resorts of Bodrum, Marmaris, Datca, Köycegiz and many others are all within the borders of Mugla province. There are many quality holiday villages, comfortable hotels and hospitable guest houses in Mugla and here you may enjoy every type of holiday, except for winter sports. The landscape is perfectly mingled with dozens of historical sites, such as Labranda, bearing the traces of past civilizations of Anatolia. The beaches are available for any type of water-sport, as unspoiled bays and clear waters await you in Mugla. In the city center there are picturesque views with the traditional architecture of Turkish houses and an Aegean type of living. The international airport of Dalaman (a town of Mugla) is the main one in the region.Gökova
Lying on the south coast of the Bodrum peninsula, the Gulf of Gökova is a fascinating corner of Turkey, offering lovely views with charming combinations of colors. Pretty shorelines covered with woodland offer every tone of green, while the sea is a wide range of blues. The mountains shelter the setting sun under hues of red and yellow. If you would like to witness all these beauties, there are opportunities to take a yacht tour along these coastlines, and a boat trip on this gulf will make your holiday as beautiful as the place itself.Köycegiz – Dalyan
Possessing the most special gifts of nature and history, Köycegiz stands beside the same named lake at the tip of which touches the Mediterranean. Now a nature and wild life preserve, this site is a real paradise with its rare and beautiful setting, and with a history going back to 3500 BC. It is possible to cruise over the natural labyrinth - like channel, walled with reeds, that link the sea and Lake of Köycegiz, which is described as “smooth as glass” till noon and suitable for wind-surfing in the afternoon; it contains almost every kind of seafood including carp and crab. Dalyan can be reached at the end of a road decorated with scented frankincense trees. The Dalyan Delta is a unique site, lying peacefully with its golden beach. Sea turtles of Caretta Caretta, and blue crabs live here making the area more attractive.
On the other side of the channel is the marvelous view of the ancient city Caunos, which was situated on the border between Caria and Lycia and was an important sea-port. The first sight here is the unique and fascinating tombs carved into the rock and overlooking the waterway. Also of interest in this district is the acropolis lying a little inland, together with a Roman temple, antique theatre, Ibrab and Susandaa castles.
The Dalyan region is not the last site in Köycegiz to offer natural beauty. The Gulf of Göcek, with its many bays facing numerous islets is another spot. Holding a lovely marina, it constitutes a perfect center for sailing, and there are also the ruins of the ancient city of Arymaxa, furnishing a different scenery.
Ekincik is another stopover for yachts, and the right place for those who wish to rest in the relaxing atmosphere of unspoiled bays.

ANTALYA
http://www.antalya.gen.tr/Default.aspx
http://www.antalya-ws.com/english/
http://www.antalyaguide.org/?Lng=EN
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ELzg7_MKJh0

Hidden place and haven FETHİYE in ANTALYA
http://www.fethiye.net/eng/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUovv0cSEPw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=55jakO6skM8&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3I8KYdkKCw&feature=related

Other Favorite Place
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKWK4JUH27k

KEKOVA in ANTALYA
http://www.kekovapansiyon.com/

KAŞ - KALKAN in ANTALYA
http://www.icemtour.com/
http://www.kalkan.org.tr/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tacRwm4xvig&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hw4TNRQgTag&feature=related
http://www.silkroadhotels.com/trk/antalya/kaskalkan/kas_kalkan.htm
http://www.happyhotel.com.tr/DefaultEng.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IB2A8m9oWfs&feature=related

FİNİKE - KUMLUCA- KEMER - LARA - BELEK - ALANYA - MANAVGAT
KEMER in ANTALYA

MANAVGAT in ANTALYA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T_Pz5Ot0uuc
http://www.simditatil.com/Antalya_Finike_tur_otel_oteller+41-3.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WnVkprhA_0
http://www.antalyahotelsturkey.com/antalya-kumluca-hotels.html
http://www.hotel.de/Search.aspx?hs_destination=Manavgat&hs_locationnr=130319&hs_validate=2&han=2075793&lng=tr

BELEK in ANTALYA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DA5ZO3mi4Sg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6i_dLL-mICs&feature=related

ALANYA in ANTALYA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJj2r1fk_9o
http://www.alanya.bel.tr/
Antalya Turkey's principal holiday resort in the Mediterranean region (ancient Pamphylia) is an attractive city with shady palm-lined boulevards a prize-winning marina on the Mediterranean. In the picturesque old quarter Kaleici narrow winding streets and old wooden houses abut the ancient city walls. Since its founding in the second century B.C. by Attalus II a king of Pergamon who named the city Attaleai after himself Antalya has been continuously inhabited. The Romans Byzantines and Seljuks in turn occupied the city before it came under Ottoman rule. The elegant fluted minaret of the Yivli Minareli Mosque in the center of the city built by the Seljuk sultan Alaeddin Keykubat in the 13th century has become the Antalya's symbol. The Karatay Medrese (theological college) in the Kaleici district from the same period exemplifies the best of Seljuk stone carvings. The two most important Ottoman mosques in the city are the 16th century Murat Pasa Mosque remarkable for its tile decoration the 18th century Tekeli Mehmet Pasa Mosque. Neighboring the marina the attractive late 19th century Iskele Mosque is built of cut stone and set on four pillars over a natural spring. The Hidirlik Kulesi (tower) was probably originally constructed as a lighthouse in the second century. Today a church the Kesik Minaret Mosque attests to the city's long history in its succession of Roman Byzantine Seljuk and Ottoman renovations. When Emperor Hadrian visited Antalya in 130 A.D. a beauti¤¤¤¤y decorated three arched gate was built into the city walls in his honor.Near the marina the two towers flanking the gate and other sections of the walls still stand. The clock tower in Kalekapisi Square was also part of the old city's fortifications.On March 29th 2006 Total Solar Eclipse has been seen in Antalya as well at 13:54pm local time.NatureThe region around Antalya offers sights of astonishing natural beauty as well as awesome historical remains. You can walk behind the cascade a thrilling experience at the Upper Düden Waterfalls 14 km northeast of Antalya. On the way to Lara Beach the Lower Düden Waterfalls plunge straight into the sea. The nearby rest area offers an excellent view of the falls; the view is even more spectacular from the sea. Kursunlu Waterfalls and Nilüfer Lake both 18 km from Antalya are two more places of superb natural beauty. The sandy Lara Beach lies about 12 km to the east. Closer to Antalya but to the west the long pebbled Konyaalti Beach offers a view of the breathtaking mountain range. A little further the Bey Dagi (Olympos) National Park and Topcam Beach provide more splendid vistas. There are camping grounds at the north end of the park should you decide to linger amid the natural beauty. For a panoramic view of the area drive to the holiday complex on top of the Tünektepe Hill.Saklikent 50 km from Antalya is an ideal winter sports resort on the northern slopes of Bakirli Mountain at an altitude of 1750-1900 meters. In March and April you can ski in the morning eat a delicious lunch of fresh fish at Antalya's marina and sunbath swim or wind surf in the afternoon. The wildlife (deer and mountain goat) in Düzlercami Park north of Antalya are under a conservation program. On the way you can stop at the astonishing 115 meter deep Güver Canyon. In the eastern side of Can Mountain 30 km from Antalya the Karain Cave which dates from the Paleolithic Age (50000 B.C.) is the site of the oldest settlement in Turkey. Although the little museum at the entrance displays some of the finds most of the artifacts are housed in various museums throughout Turkey. The ruins of the city of Termessos set inside Güllük Dagi a national park northwest of Antalya is perched on a 1050 meter high plateau on the west face of Güllük Mountain (Solymos). A nature and wildlife museum is found at the park entrance.

BİLECİK - ESTABLISHMENT PLACE
OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE: SÖĞÜT
http://www.sogut.gov.tr/
http://www.travelvideos365.com/tag/s%C3%B6%C4%9F%C3%BCt/1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZut9XuYuvo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ViJFDqh2qR0
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ip-WYxZwjaw&feature=related
Bilecik is the provincial capital of Turkey's Bilecik Province.Along with its districts, it is the birthplace of the Osmanlı dynasty, whose members founded the Ottoman Empire.The town is famous for its numerous restored Turkish houses. It is increasingly becoming more attractive more tourists. With its rich architectural heritage, Bilecik is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions (EAHTR).Bilecik, lying in the green fertile lands of the river valley, is the eastern neighbor of Bursa in Marmara region. Its historical background goes back to 1950 BC, with many Anatolian civilizations in this Bithynian region such as Hittites, Phrygians, Lycians, Persians and Macedonians living here. Its earliest names are known as Agrilion and Agrillum. During the Byzantine Empire the city was called Belokeme.The province has an area of 4.307 square kilometers with approximately 200,000 people. Bilecik is worth visiting with its mausoleum of Seyh (Sheik) Edebali, who was an important influential person in the foundation of the Ottoman Empire. Nearby is the mausoleum of Orhan Gazi. Every September a festival is held in his memory. Bilecik played also an important role during the War of Independence led by Atatürk.30 kilometers from Bilecik is the little town Sogut which got its name from the numerous willows that surround the town. Sogut Is the place where the Ottoman Empire was founded and here are the life size busts of famous figures of Turkish history. If you would like to see the whole of the history of Turkey before your eyes, then you should visit the Ethnographical Museum. There are many historical tombs and mosques in the province. Onyx handicrafts are recommended as a souvenir from Bilecik of which are great value.Some of the sites of interest in the province are: Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi mosques, Seyh Edebali and Mal Hatun mausoleums, Köprülü Mehmet Pasha mosque, Köprülü Caravanserai, Kaplikaya tombs, Rüstem Pasha mosque, and Gülalan Pavilion.

BURSA - ULUDAĞ
Bursa (historically also known as Prussa, Greek: Προύσα, and later as Brusa) is a city Turkey and the seat of Bursa Province. With a population of 1,562,828 (2007),[1] it is Turkey's fourth largest city, as well as one of the most industrialized and culturally charged metropolitan centers in the country.Bursa is settled on the north-west slopes of the Mount Uludağ in the South of Marmara Region. It is bordered by The Marmara Sea and Yalova on the north, Kocaeli and Sakarya on the north-east, Bilecik on the east and Kütahya and Balıkesir on the south.The city is frequently cited as "Yeşil Bursa" (meaning "Green Bursa") in a reference to the parks and gardens located across its urban tissue, as well as to the vast forests in rich variety that extend in its surrounding region. The city is synonymous with the mountain Uludağ which towers behind the city core and which is also a famous ski resort. The mausoleums of early Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa and the numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period constitute the city's main landmarks. The surrounding fertile plain, its thermal baths, several interesting museums, notably a rich museum of archaeology, and a rather orderly urban growth are further principal elements that complete Bursa's overall picture.Karagöz and Hacivat shadow play characters were historic personalities who lived and are buried in Bursa. Bursa is also home to some of the most famous Turkish dishes, especially candied chestnuts and İskender kebap. Its peaches are also well-renowned. Among its depending district centers, İznik, historic Nicaea, is especially notable for its long history and important edifices. Bursa is home to Uludağ University, and its population attains one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey. It has traditionally been a pole of attraction and of refuge for immigration into Turkey from the Balkans, in sizable waves at times until quite recently.HistoryThe earliest known site at this location was Cius, which Philip V of Macedonia granted to the Bithynian king Prusias I in 202 BC, for his help against Pergamum and Heraclea Pontica (modern Karadeniz Ereğli). Prusias renamed the city after himself, as Prusa.It was later a major city, located on the westernmost end of the famous Silk Road, and was the capital of the Ottoman Empire following its capture from the shrinking Byzantine Empire in 1326. After the city was captured from the Byzantine Empire, many structures were built especially when it was the capital city of the Ottoman Empire. The capture of Didymoteichon and Edirne in 1365 brought that city to the fore as well, but Bursa remained an important administrative and commercial center even after it lost its status as the sole capital. Shortly after it was taken by the Ottomans they developed a school of theology at Bursa. This school attracted Muslim scholars from throughout the Middle East and continued to function after the capital had been moved elsewhere.During the Ottoman rule, Bursa was the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local production, it imported raw silk from Iran, and occasionally China, and was the 'factory' for the kaftans, pillows, embroidery and other silk products for the royal palaces up through the 17th century. Another traditional occupation is knife making and, historically, horse carriage building. Nowadays one can still find hand-made knives as well as other products in rich variety produced by artisans, but instead of carriages, there is a big automobile industry.Bursa sits on a geologic fault like most of Turkey. The city was partially leveled by strong earthquakes coupled with fires and was rebuilt after each time. Being on the first degree earthquake zone, it was widely affected by the earthquakes which took place in 1855 and 1905.EconomyBursa is the toe of Turkey's automobile industry. FIAT and Renault have for decades had important production units in Bursa. The textile and food industries are equally strong, and Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola, and other beverages brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries are present in the city's organized industrial zones. Traditionally, Bursa was famous for its fertile soil and agricultural activities, both of which are decreasing due to the heavy industrialization of the city.Bursa is also a major tourist center: One of the best ski resorts of Turkey is located at Uludağ just next to city proper. Its thermal baths have been used for therapeutical purposes since Roman times. Apart from baths operated by hotels, Uludağ University has a physical therapy center which also makes use of thermal water.Places of InterestA brief list of places of interest in and around Bursa is presented below. For a longer list, see Places of interest in Bursa.
Irgandi covered bridge. See photo on "TrekEarth nadirfotograf"
Yeşil Cami or the Green mosque
Uludağ National Park
Bursa city walls
Hot springs;
Çekirge
Armutlu
Oylat
Gemlik
Beaches;
Armutlu
Kumla
Kurşunlu
Mudanya
Palace and Hipogeum
Orhan Mosque and complex
Muradiye complex
Yeşil complex
Bayezid I Mosque and complex (külliye)
Emir Sultan Mosque and complex (külliye)
Hüdavendigar complex
Koca Sinan Paşa complex
İshak Paşa complex
Bursa Grand Mosque
Karacabey Grand Mosque
Yıldırım Bazaar
Museums;
Bursa Archeology Museum
Bursa City Museum[1]
Bursa Atatürk Museum
Bursa Turkish Architecture Museum
Islamic Works Museum
Mudanya Armistice
İznik Museum
Cumalıkızık village Ulu Camii (The Great Mosque)Ulu Camii is the major mosque of Bursa and a landmark of early Ottoman architecture. It was built by Ali Neccar in 1396-1399, at Sultan Bayezid I's command. The mosque is large and rectangular, with twenty domes arranged in four rows of five supported by twelve columns. Supposedly twenty domes are built instead of twenty separate mosques that Sultan Bayezid I promised for winning the Battle of Nicopolis. It has two minarets. Inside the mosque there are 192 monumental wall inscriptions written by famous calligraphers. There is also a fountain (şadırvan) inside the mosque where worshipers can perform ritual ablutions before prayer; the dome over the şadırvan is capped by a skylight, creating a soft, serene light below. The story of the şadırvan inside the mosque, which is unheard of, that the land belong to an old lady who objected to her store taken by padişah. Because consent is not given for the piece of land, prayer cannot be conducted on it thus a şadırvan is built. Architecturally şadırvan helps to have light inside the mosque that is big. The horizontally spacious and dimly lit interior is designed to feel peaceful and contemplative. The subdivisions of space formed by multiple domes and pillars create a sense of privacy and even intimacy. This atmosphere contrasts with later Ottoman mosques (see for example the work of Süleyman I's chief architect Sinan). These later mosques have increasingly elevated central domes, which create a vertical emphasis that is intended to be more overwhelming, in order to convey the power and majesty of the Ottoman Empire. It is a beautiful piece of architecture.



BALIKESİR- ERDEK
http://www.icemtour.com/balikesir_hotels_daily_tours_flight_tickets_car_rental_turkey.asp
The province of Balikesir has pretty little towns of wide natural beauties. The beaches extending for kilometers on both the Aegean and Marmara coasts, the dazzling waters of deep blue, and rich greenery gently covering the land, attract anyone who would like to have a wonderful time in the midst of wonderful scenery.
Having housed many civilizations in
Anatolia throughout its long past, the province is a rich center of historical remains bringing the oldest times of humanity to light. The attractive Yildirim and Zagnos Pasa Mosques in the city center are examples of the monuments of earlier periods besides the interesting clock tower, while the towns nearby also hold ruins from the remote ages, standing in a beautiful natural scenery.
The Gulf of Edremit, lying on the Aegean, is one of these lovely sites, with a broad choice of beaches and seaside resorts overlooking the clear sea. Edremit and Altinoluk (which is an oxygen heaven, ranks second in the world for a high oxygen density) are the towns that stud this wonderful area, together with Oren, where green pine forests meet the sandy shores of fine holiday resorts. In one part of this beautiful village you may see
Roman and Byzantine ruins, while in the other you can find the most fresh and delicious seafood and typical dishes of the district, offered by good restaurants.
Called as “Olive Riviera”, Ayvalik is reached by following the olive groves. This town is also a picturesque spot with its fine beaches facing a collection of 25 small lovely islands. An attraction in the town is the Taksiyarkis Church. Its great architecture and marble carvings are worth seeing. Nearby is the “Seytan Sofrasi” (the Devil’s Banquet) which offers one of the most perfect panoramic sunsets in the world. The site also affords a marvelous view of the Sarmisakli peninsula, famous for its beaches, and the little island of Cunda (Alibey).
Gonen, 30 kilometers from Bandirma, is another excellent relaxation center, possessing therapeutic
thermal springs. The health and cure establishments here, have been used by people suffering from various illnesses since the earliest times.
Located at the foot of Kazdagi, is Akcay, another popular
spa-center with its spring waters that effect cures. Besides the health-related opportunities, this town offers a beautiful natural scenery, fitting its legendary fame. According to mythology, the world’s first beauty contest was held here, on Mount Ida, and Aphrodite was chosen the queen from the three beautiful goddesses. This was considered as the starting point of everything in Trojan War.
Lying off the coast from this province are the pretty islands, Marmara and Avsa. Famed for their wine and fish, these sites offer wonderful shorelines. Marmara island is full of historical treasures which increase its attractiveness. Here is the “Mermer Plaj” (Marble Beach) which takes its name from the marbles for which the town is famous.
Erdek, on the coast of
Marmara Sea, is a nice tourist center, situated on the beautiful Kapidag peninsula. Olive trees, vineyards and fruit gardens are features of this land which is surrounded by the clearest waters of the region. The Hadrian’s Temple at Kyzikos is here, alongside many other historical remains that adorn the area.
Of particular interest is the Manyas
National Park near Bandirma which is the “Bird Paradise”, sheltering 239 species of birds. It is a restful and lovely place for bird watchers, just as the whole city is for nature-lovers


MERSİN
Daha Çok Tanıtım Daha Çok Turist
http://www.mersinkulturturizm.gov.tr/BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFF5187E7E9DF69685B76931832F09F8AF5
http://www.icemtour.com/mersin_hotels_daily_tours_flight_tickets_car_rental_turkey.asp
Mersin
Mersin is one of the most modern provinces of the palm lined avenues, city park and modern hotels and a good base for visiting the nearby historical sites and beaches. Mersin is the largest port on the Turkish Mediterranean region. There is also a Free Trade Zone here and it is a business centre. In Mersin you may find all the comforts of a modern city and all the characteristics of the Mediterranean cities. Fish is abundant as well as most delicious in this region and in the Mersin fish market you will find inexpensive fish restaurants which are really enjoyable for those who love fish and “Raki” or wine. Although Mersin dates only from the 19th century, it occupies an extremely ancient site. At Mount Yumuktepe the excavations proved that there had been twelve successive settlements beginning from the Neolithic Period.Icel has also hunting, fishing, picnicking, mountaineering and caving attractions for sports fans.Anamur
Two hours west of Mersin, Anamur is a lovely town situated in the mountains and surrounded by banana plantations thanks to its climate. There are the ruins of ancient Anemorium, 10 kms to the west of the town on a fine beach. Anamur Castle is well preserved and provides a fascinating views of the landscape. The road between Anamur and Silifke passes through the pine clad mountains which descend to the sea offering splendid views of cliffs, coves and the brilliant turquoise waters of the Mediterranean.Aydincik is a cute village with pleasant beaches. After Aydincik, to the east, is the most beautiful coastline in Turkey.Silifke
Silifke, 90 kms from Mersin, is a little bit inland, on the site of the acropolis of ancient Seleucia and Colycadnos. The old bridge crossing the Göksu River, the theatre and the temple from Roman times are of interest.To the north of Silifke there is an excellent excursion opportunity, to UzuncaburÁ.The road up to the magnificent ancient site of Olba - Diocaeserela is lined with large tombs. In the ancient city there are the ruins of the Temple of Zeus, Olbius and the Temple of Tychaion, and numerous arches, theater, Byzantine church and tower.Outside Silifke, on the road to Tasucu is the archaeological museum, while further on AyaTekla is the tomb and church of St. Thecla who was the first female martyr.Tasucu is a pleasant resort town with good accommodations and fine sandy beaches, especially the Aphrodite Beach. The harbor includes regular sea bus services to Girne in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Between Silifke and Mersin there is the little fishing village Narlikuyu which you should not pass by without trying the delicious fish by the turquoise bay. In Narlikuyu you can see a Roman mosaic depicting the Three Graces.Around Narlikuyu an exciting excursion is to Cennet - Cehennem (Heaven and Hell), and the Astim Dilek Caves which are deep chasms, one of which has a chapel. They are really fascinating and you will understand why they carry these names once you visit.60 kms from Mersin, to the west, is the ancient city Korykos, which is now the resort town of Kizkalesi, with sandy beaches and camping sites. There are important remains which are symbols of that region like The Castle of Korykos on the beach faces the Kizkalesi (Maiden’s Castle) which stands on an islet 200 m offshore. The two castles once used to be joined by a sea wall but now they are separated as the wall submerged. The road from Silifke to Mersin is very enjoyable along the coast; the ancient basilicas, tombs and ruins are on one side of the road and beautiful coves with sandy beaches on the other side.Ancient Pompeiopolis, founded by Rhodians in 700 BC, provides many remarkable ruins. The modern name of the city is Viransehir and it is 13 kms west of Mersin. At Kanlidivane you will see the ruins of the ancient city Kanytelis clinging on the sides of a deep chasm.Tarsus
Tarsus is the birthplace of St. Paul. Situated on the edge of the fertile Cukurova plain in the city is middle of cedar groves. The city is also the meeting place of legendary loves Antony and Cleopatra, and there is the commemorative Cleopatra Gate. To reach St. Paul’s Cistern you pass through narrow streets of the city; the old houses on the sides will prepare for the things you will see . Then you may head for a rest to the Tarsus waterfalls and shady trees. The tombs of Prophet Daniel, Lokman Hekim, a famous legendary medical doctor, are here. There are also many historical places to visit such as Cleopatra’s Gate, the Gozlukule, Justinians Bridge, and the Tarsus Museum.

ADANA
Daha Çok Tanıtım Daha Çok Turist

http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/adana&page=1
http://www.gatetoturkey.com/turkey_a_z_tour/00992/index.php?langsel=tr
http://www.igougo.com/travel_guide-l5523-Adana_tourism.html
http://www.anatolia.luwo.be/index.htm?Adana.htm&1

Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. The city administrates two districts, Seyhan and Yüreğir, with a total population of 2,530,257 and an area of 1,945 km². It is the fifth most populous cityTurkey (after Istanbul, Ankara, İzmir and Bursa).For most Turkish people, the word 'Adana' associates with Kebab, şalgam, cotton, oranges and very hot weather.Adana is named among the 25 European Regions of the Future for 2006/2007 by Foreign Direct Investment Magazine. Chosen alongside Kocaeli for Turkey, Adana scored the most points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli's points for infrastructure development, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human resources and quality of life.LocationOne of the largest and most dynamic cities in Turkey and situated thirty kilometers (nineteen miles) inland, Adana is the gateway to the Cilician plain, now known as the Çukurova plain, the large stretch of flat and fertile land which lies to the south-east of the Taurus Mountains. This is possibly the most productive area in this part of the world. From Adana, crossing the Çukurova going west, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent; the road reaches an altitude of nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m). It goes through the famous Cilician or Çukurova Gates, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam has constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to provide irrigation water to the lower part of Çukurova plain, agricultural cultivating area located in the south part of the city. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain passing through the city center from east to west. Also there is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city.Some claim that the name is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of Kizzuwatna,[5]Danaus and the Danaoi, a legendary Greek tribe. In the Iliad of Homer, the city is called Adana. In HellenisticAntiochia in Cilicia (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Κιλικίας) or Antiochia ad Sarum (Greek: Αντιόχεια η προς Σάρον; "Antiocia on the Sarus"). The editors of The Helsinki Atlas tentatively identify Adana as Quwê (as contained in cuneiform tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê province. The name also appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible, where King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16).EtymologyThe name of the city is believed to have come from a legend that Adanus and Sarus, two sons of Uranus, came to a place near the Seyhan River where they built Adana.Alternatively, it is believed that Adad (Tesup), the name of the Hittite Thunder God that lived in the forest was given to the region. The Hittites ideas, names and writings have been found in the area so this is a strong possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the 'Uru Adaniyya'; in other words 'The Region of Ada'.Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, Addane.HistoryThe history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they seem often to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring Seyhan River changed its position, and the name changed too over the course of centuries. Adana was of little importance in ancient history, while Tarsus was the metropolis of the area. Also, Ayas (today Yumurtalık), and Kozan (formerly Sis) have been population and administrative centers, especially during the time of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.The history of Adana goes back more than 3000 years; finds in the region reveal human occupation of the area during the Paleolithic Age.Tepebag Tumulus, where archaeologists found a stone wall and a city center, was built in the Neolithic Age; it is considered to be the oldest city of the Cilicia region.An Adana is mentioned by name in a Sumerian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.According to the Hittite inscription of Kava, found in Hattusa (Boğazkale), KizzuwatnaUru Adaniyya, and the inhabitants were called Danuna.Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows: KueAssyrians, 9th century BC; Cilician Kingdom, Persians, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great in 333 BC; Seleucids; and the pirates of Cilicia and Roman statesman Pompey the Great. During the era of Pompey, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a waystation on a Roman military road leading to the East. After the split of the Roman Empire, the area became part of the Byzantine Empire, and was probably developed during the time of Julian. With the building of large bridges, roads, government buildings, and irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region.Middle Ages In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arab Abbasids. According to an Arab historian of that era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet Yazene's grandson.The Byzantines recaptured Adana in 964. After the victory of Alp Arslan at the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks overran much of the Byzantine Empire. They had reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to hold the place until Tancred, a leader of the First Crusade, captured the city in 1097.In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, under its king, Leo I. It was taken by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around 1170. In 1268 there was a terrible earthquake which destroyed much of the city. Adana was rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia until around 1360, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt in return for obtaining a peace treaty. The Mamluks' capture of the city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramazanoğlu family, one of the Turkish families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans captured the city.Modern Era From the end of the Renaissance to the modern era (1517–1918), the Ottoman Empire ruled the area.In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence for the Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the viceroy of Egypt, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.In 1909 Adana was the location of the Adana massacre.[7] Turkish scholars and some others refer to the event as the Adana rebellion, based on a thesis of its underlying causes.[8]After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and an Armenian troop equipped by French was sent to occupy the city. During the Turkish War of Independence, Adana was strategically important. Mustafa KemalKuvayi Milliye was born. Turkish nationalists fought against Allied forces, and on October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara was signed between France and the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Based on the terms of the agreement, France signified the end of the Cilicia War; afterwards French invasion troops together with the Armenian volunteers[9] withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.On 30 January 1943, Adana played host to Winston Churchill, determined to secure Turkey's entry into the Second World War on the side of the Allies, for a conference with the President İsmet İnönü (Adana Conference). The Turkish neutrality and İnönü's policy based on rationing concessions to both sides meant that the conference remained without substantial results.Adana todayAdana has become an international metropolis, stretching and swallowing its neighbors. Adana is the marketing and distribution center for the Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great quantities. The main industries of the city are textile manufacturing, leather tanning, and wool processing. The houses in Adana have flat tops, and the roofs serve as bedrooms for the inhabitants during the hot summers.The city of Adana today is administered by three district council authorities: Seyhan, Yüreğir, and Karaisalı. Seyhan is the more developed part of the city on the west bank of Seyhan river, Yüreğir is located on the east bank. Karaisalı is best-known for growing myrtleberries (myrtus communis).The city is also famous for its cuisine, including; the Adana kebab; şalgam, a salty fermented juice made from turnips; Şırdan a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin; paça, boiled sheep's feet; bicibici (pronounced as bee-jee-bee-jee) made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as Halka Tatlı a round shaped dessert and Taş Kadayıf a bow shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot, are native to this area.NATO's Incirlik Air Base is located in town of İncirlik, 12 km (7 mi) east of Adana. Shopping in Adana is enhanced the 'American bazaar' a street market selling new and second-hand goods that have seeped out of the Incirlik Air-base.Mr. Aytaç Durak has been the mayor of Adana for two terms: 1984 - 1989, 1994 - present. He is a member of AK Parti.Sightseeing
Stone Bridge, built in part during the 6th-century reign of the Byzantine emperorJustinian I, the oldest extant bridge in the world which is still in use.
Yilanlı Kale The ruins of a castle dating from 782.
Büyük Saat (The Great Clock), a large clock tower, was built by the local governor of Adana in 1882. Unfortunately, it was damaged during the French occupation but it was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in the city's coat of arms. There are many historical buildings and tombs of local governors next to the Büyük Saat.
The old bazaar, Kazancılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Cauldron-Makers), founded around Büyük Saat, where Çarşı Hamamı (Bath of the Bazaar), a Turkish bath built in 1519 can be found.
Bebekli Kilise (Church of Babies) is an old Catholic church located in the city center. There are many historic houses in the street where the church is located.
Seyhan Dam
Ramazanoğlu Türbesi
Varda (German) Bridge : Varda Bridge is in Karaisali which is a province of Adana. The railway bridge is near to Hacikiri village. it was made in 1903 by Germans. So people also call it German Bridge. if you want to see a beautiful view, you should visit the bridge. Mosques
Adana Ulu Camii
New Mosque
Butter mosque
Eski Camii
Sabancı Mosque
Alemdar Mescidi
Şeyh Zülfi mescidi
Kizildag Ramazanoglu mosque Museums
Adana Museum
Adana Etnography Museum
Adana Archeological Museum
Adana Atatürk Museum
Misis Mosaic Museum Hammams
Irmak Hamamı
Mestenzade Hamamı
Yeni Hamam Festivals
Adana Golden Boll International Film Festival (Altın Koza Film Festivali) Education
Çukurova University Railway
Adana Railway Station on the Baghdad Railway. Airport
Adana Şakirpaşa Airport Sports and Athletics There is a race-track and also two well-known football teams:
Adanaspor
Adana Demirspor

HATAY
Daha Çok Yatırım Daha Çok Turist
http://www.turizmofisi.com/s/hatay/
Hatay(Antakya)Antakya is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey, near the border with Syria. In ancient times the city was known as Antioch and has historical significance for Christianity, being the place where the followers of Jesus Christ were called Christians for the very first time. The city and its massive walls also played an important role during the Crusades.GeographyAntakya is located on the banks of the Orontes River (Turkish: Asi Nehri), approximately 22 km (14 mi) inland from the Mediterranean coast. It enjoys a Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers, and mild and wet winters; however due to its higher altitude, Antakya has slightly cooler temperatures than the coast. The city is in a valley surrounded by mountains, the Nur Mountains to the north and Mount Keldağ (Jebel Akra to the south, with the 440 m high Mount Habib Neccar (ancient Silpius) forming its eastern limits. The mountains are a source of a green marble. Antakya is at the northern edge of the Dead Sea Rift and vulnerable to earthquakes.The plain of Amik to the north-east of the city is fertile soil watered by the Orontes, the Karasu River and the Afrin River, the lake in the plain was drained in 1980 by a French company. At the same time channels were built to widen the Orontes River and let it pass neatly through the city centre. The Orontes is joined in Antakya by the Hacı Kürüş stream to the north-east of the city near the church of St Peter, and the Hamşen which runs down from Habib-i Neccar to the south-west, under Memekli Bridge near the army barracks. Flora includes the bay trees and myrtle.The city of Antakya todayMount Habib Neccar and the city walls which climb the hillsides symbolise Antakya, making the city a formidable fortress built on a series of hills running north-east to south-west. Antakya was originally centred on the eastern bank of the river but since the 19th century the city has expanded with new neighbourhoods built on the plains across the river to the south-west, and there are four bridges across the river linking the old and new cities. However, as in so much of Turkey, the buildings of the last two decades are all concrete blocks, and Antakya has lost much of its classic beauty. The narrow streets of the old city can be clogged with traffic. Although the port of Iskenderun has become the largest city in Hatay, Antakya is a provincial capital still of considerable importance as the centre of a large district, growing in wealth and productiveness with the draining of Lake Amik. The town is a lively shopping and business centre with many restaurants, cinemas and other amenities, centred on a large park opposite the governor's building and the central avenue Kurtuluş Caddesı. The tea gardens, cafes and restaurants in the neighbourhood of Harbiye are one of the city's most popular spots, particularly for the variety of meze in the restaurants. The Orontes River is rather smelly when water is low in summer. Although the people are generally modern in outlook, there is little in the way of wild night life. In the summer heat people will stay outside until late in the night walking with their families and friends and munching on snacks.Being so near the Syrian border Antakya is a cosmopolitan city unlike most of the cities in Turkey today, and it has not experienced the 1980s and 1990s mass immigration of people from eastern Anatolia that has radically swelled the populations of other Mediterranean cities such as Adana and Mersin. As a result both Turkish and Arabic are still widely spoken in Antakya although you do not see Arabic written very much. A mixed community of faiths and demoninations co-exist peacefully here; although almost all the inhabitants are Muslim a substantial proportion adhere to the Alevi and the Arab Nusayri traditions, in 'Harbiye' there is a place to honour the Nusayri saint Hızır. There are a number of tombs of Muslim saints, both Sunni and Alevi, throughout the city. There are also still small active Christian communities in the city, the largest church being St Peter and St Paul on Hurriyet Caddesi. With its long history of spiritual and religious movements Antakya is still a place of pilgrimage for Christians and Muslims and furthermore still carries a reputation in Turkey as a centre of spells, fortune telling, miracles and spirits.Local crafts include a soap scented with oil of bay tree.CuisineThe cuisine of Antakya is renowned. Popular dishes include the typical Turkish kebab, served in Antakya with spices and onions in flat unleavened bread, or with yoghurt as ali nazik kebab. Hot spicy food is a feature of this part of Turkey, along with Turkish coffee and local specialities including:Sweets Künefe - a hot Arabic cheese pastry sweet. Antakya is Turkey's künefe capital, with the pastry shops in the centre all proclaiming themselves king Turkish: kral. The secret is in the light yellow cheese that they use. Müşebbek - rings of deep fried pastry SavoriesPomegranate syrup, used as a salad dressing, called debes ramman, a traditional Levantine Arabic dressing. Semirsek a thin bread with hot pepper, minced meat or spinach filling içli köfte and oruk - varieties of the Arabic kibbeh, deep-fried balls of bulgur stuffed with minced meat Spicy chicken, a speciality of Harbiye Za'atar a traditional Levantine Arabic spiced thyme, oregano, and sesame seeds, mixed with olive oil, spread on flat arabic bread fresh chick peas, munched as a snack Hirise MezeHummus - the chick-pea dip pureed fava beans Surke - the spicy sun-dried cheese Çökelek - dried curds served in spicy olive oil Eels from the Orontes, spiced and fried in olive oil.AntiquitySee Antioch for the long, rich history of this area in the ancient and classical periods, dating back to the Calcolithic era of 5000 BC (as revealed by excavations of the mound of Tell-Açana among others). Subsequent rulers of the area include Alexander the Great, who after defeating the Persians in 333 BC followed the Orontes south into Syria. The city of Antioch was founded in 300 BC, after the death of Alexander, by the Seleucid King Antiochus Soter, and went on to play an important part in the history as one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire and Byzantium, a key location of the early years of Christianity, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, the rise of Islam and The Crusades.The Ottoman city of AntakyaIn 1822 (and again in 1872), Antakya was hit by an earthquake so when Ottoman general Ibrahim Pasha established his headquarters in the city in 1835, it had only some 5000 inhabitants. It was hoped that the city might develop thanks to the Euphrates valley railway, which was supposed to link it to the port of Suedia (now Samandağı). But such plans were doomed to come to naught. Instead, the city was struck by repeated outbreaks of cholera. Later the city did nevertheless develop and rapidly resumed much of its old importance when a railway was built along the lower Orontes valley.The Republic of Hatay and modern TurkeySee Hatay Province for the history of the region during the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the short-lived Republic of Hatay (in 1938), and the areas incorporation into the Republic of Turkey in 1939.Places of interestWith its remarkable history there is much for visitors to see in Antakya, although much has doubtless been lost in the rapid and ugly growth of the city in recent decades.Antakya Archaeological Museum has the second largest collection of Roman mosaics in the world, found when excavating Roman villas on the hillside at Harbiye. (Entry is 5 lira for foreigners, 2 lira for Turkish citizens). the rock-carved Church of St Peter, with its network of refuges and tunnels carved out of the rock, a site of Christian pilgrimage. There are also tombs cut into the rock face at various places along the Orontes valley. The seedy Gündüz cinema in the city centre was once used as parliament building of the Republic of Hatay. the waterfall and restaurants at Harbiye. The Ottoman Habib-i Neccar Camii is the oldest mosque in Antakya. The labyrinth of narrow streets in the old market area The views of the city from the hillsides above With its rich architectural heritage, Antakya is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions. Sadly the Roman bridge (thought to date from the era of Diocletian was destroyed in 1972 during the widening and channelling of the Orontes.

CAPPADOCIA, URGUP, GOREME(NEVŞEHİR)
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Nevşehir, formerly Muşkara, ancient Nyssa, is a city and the capital district of Nevşehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to 2000 census, population of the district is 105,078 of which 67,864 live in the city of Nevşehir. The district covers an area of 535 km² (207 sq mi), and the town lies at an average elevation of 1,224 m (4,016 ft).HistoryHistorically, Nevşehir was a small village, called Nyssa, founded on the slopes of Mount Kahveci, in the valley of Kızılırmak (the ancient Halys) by the Hittites. It later came under the rule of the Assyrians, who were taken over by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in 546 BC. In 333 BC Alexander the Great defeated the Persians. After the collapse of his empire, the Cappadocian Kingdom was formed with Mazaka (present-day Kayseri) as capital. Nyssa became part of the Roman empire, when the Romans invaded the region in the first century BC. Centuries later it was ruled by the Byzantines.The Christian theologian and saint Gregory of Nyssa was bishop of Nyssa in the late 4th century AD. Many of the churches, hewn in the rocks, date from these early years of Christianity. The underground shelters were originally built to escape persecution by the Romans. When Christianity became state religion under Constantine the Great these shelters served their purpose during raids of the Arabs or the Sassanids.At the Battle of Manzikert (present-day Malazgirt) in 1071, the Byzantine emperor Romanos IV was defeated by the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan. Nyssa became part of the Seljuk empire. When this empire collapsed in 1308, Nyssa came under the control of the Ilhanid Mongols.When the Ottoman sultan Selim i destroyed the Dulkadir Principality, Nyssa became part of the the Ottoman empire and was renamed "Muşkara". It remained a relatively insignificant settlement until the early 18th century.The present-day city owes its foundation to the grand vizier and son-in-law of the Sultan Ahmed III, Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha who was born in Muşkara and therefore took a great interest in its construction as a city. The small village with only 18 houses, formerly under the administration of the kaza of Ürgüp, was rapidly transformed with the building of mosques (the Kurṣunlu Mosque), fountains, schools, soup kitchens, inns and bath houses, and its name was changed from Muşkara to "Nevşehir" (meaning New City in Persian and Ottoman Turkish).Nevşehir todayThe city is located at a distance of 290 km (180 mi) from the capital Ankara, and is within the historical region of Cappadocia.The traditional main sources of income of the city, carpet weaving and viticulture have been overtaken by tourism, because of its proximity to the underground shelters, the fairy chimneys, monasteries, caravanserais and the famous rock-hewn churches of Göreme.

KONYA
Come! Whatever you are be...
MEVLANA
Konya (Ottoman Turkish: قونیه; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ἰκόνιον Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. It has a population of 1,412,343 (in 2007).Ancient historyExcavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC. The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. These were overtaken by the Indo-European Sea Peoples around 1200 BC. The Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia in the 8th century BC. Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the last city of Phrygia.
The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. Alexander’s empire broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator. During the Hellenistic period the town was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. When Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, died childless, he bequeathed his empire to Rome. Under the rule of emperor Claudius, the city’s name was changed to Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia Aelia Hadriana.Iconium was visited by Saint Paul and Barnabas, according to the Book of Acts, in 47, 50 and 53 AD. In Christian legend, it was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla. During the Byzantine Empire the town was destroyed several times by Arab invaders in the 7th-9th centuries.Seljuk eraThe city was captured by the Seljuk Turks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and from 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, though very briefly occupied by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097) and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190). The name of the town was changed to Konya by Rukn al-Dīn Mas’ūd in 1134.Konya reached its height of wealth and influence as of the second half of the 12th century when Anatolian Seljuk sultans also subdued the Turkish Beyliks to their east, especially that of Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and even gaining a momentary foothold in Crimea. This golden age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century.By the 1220s, the city was filled with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire, fleeing the advance of the Mongol Empire. Sultan Alā al-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykā’ūs fortified the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited Bahaeddin Veled and his son Mevlana, the founder of the Mevlevi order, to settle in Konya.
In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dag, Konya was captured by Mongols as well. The city remained the capital of Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the Ilkhanate until the end of the century.
Following the fall of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Konya was made an emirate in 1307 which lasted until 1322 when the city was captured by the Beylik of Karamanoğlu. In 1420, Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman Empire and, in 1453, Konya was made the provincial capital of the Ottoman Province of Karaman.Ottoman EraUnder the Ottoman Empire, in the vilayet system established after 1864, Konya was the seat of the Vilayet of Konya
According to 1896 census, Konya had a population slightly above forty thousand, of which 42,318 Muslims, 1,566 Christian Armenians and 899 Christian Greeks. There were also 21 mosques and 5 Churches in the town. A still-standing Catholic church was also built for Italian railroad workers in the 1910s. By 1927, after the Greek-Turkish population exchange of 1923, the city was almost exclusively Muslim.UniversitiesKonya is home to Selçuk University, one of the largest universities in Turkey.Points in historyThe tomb of Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the Persian mystical poet commonly known as “Mevlâna” to his citizens and who is the founder of the Sufi Mevlevi order (famous for The Whirling Dervishes), is located in Konya where he had spent the last fifty years of his life.Ibn Arabi, the great Sufi visited Konya in 1207 on the invitation of the Seljuq governor of that time and married there with the mother of his disciple Sadreddin Konevi.Hazrat Shah Jalal was born in 1271 in Konya.Notable StructuresAlaeddin MosqueInce Minaret Medrese MuseumKaratay Medrese MuseumMevlana Museum, formerly the tekke of MevlanaCultureAlongside a generally high level of instruction and very modern buildings, Konya has a reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey.One of the best known Turkish folk songs is named “Konyalım” (making reference to a loved one from Konya). The song’s slightly suggestive lyrics are known virtually by everybody in Turkey.